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Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton, CVO, OBE (1874-1922) was an Irish explorer of Anglo-Irish ancestry. He was a member of four Antarctic expeditions, three of which he led. After the Nimrod Expedition, 1907-09, he was knighted for his achievement in establishing a record furthest south latitude at 88 23'S, 97 nautical miles (180 km), from the South Pole. He is most noteworthy for leading the unsuccessful Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, often known as the "Endurance Expedition", between 1914 and 1916. Although Shackleton failed to achieve his goal of crossing the Antarctic continent on foot, he demonstrated the qualities of leadership for which he is best remembered when the expedition ship Endurance became trapped in the ice and was destroyed. Shackleton, known by his contemporaries as "the Boss", led his men to refuge on Elephant Island before heading across 800 miles (1,300 km) of the Southern Ocean to South Georgia, in an open boat with five other men. Upon reaching the remote island, Shackleton and two others crossed severe, mountainous terrain to reach a whaling station, from which he was able eventually to rescue his men on Elephant Island.